disasters

The History Of Disasters In The Grand Bazaar

94There had been a big earthquake during the time of Beyazıt II (1509). Although many builclings were clestroyecl, it clicl not affect the Bazaar. The fact that the first recorcled fire disaster was in 1519 in the records book of Hagia Sophia, shows us that there had been a fire disaster in the Bedestan before this clate. This fire bumeel only inner sections of Beclestan. Hunclrecl anel twenty eight trunks located where the safe boxes were, were aclclecl up to a hunclrecl anel forty; they had been repairecl and extenclecl by aclcling up the ones in the comers.

The second fire took place in 1694 and bumeel out the four sicles of Beclestan. The third (1701) bumeel out Bat Market, Mercan Market and Kebeciler Inn which were located between Big Beclestan anel Sandal Bedestan. The fourth fire starteel araund Mercan area in 1749. Altlıough the fire was uncler control at first; it starteel again in a few hours anel after it bumeel out Bat Market, in adelition to Abacılar, Yorgancılar, Yağlıkçılar anel surraunding inns it clestroyed the Parmakkapı ve Okçularbaşı area which was outside the Bazaar. While Vakanüvis İzzi was ralking about this fire, he said that the fire was veıy destructive because of the wincl; it even damaged stones anel bricks. Fixing this kinci of damage was very clifficult for the traclesmen. When they wantecl to do a basic repair, the sultan of the time, Mahmut I, callecl the heacl architect of the palace for repairs and paicl the cost from his own pocket. By doing so, the sultan almost shows an example of the situation we are facing today.

The fifth disaster was the second biggest earthquake in 1765 which clestroyecl the Fatih Mosque. The Sultan of the time, Sultan Mustafa III, assignecl a person to each clestroyecl building; Tıfli Efendi was assigned to the Bazaar. However, although we do not have any information about the level of this damage, we presume that it was not severe. Yet, the epicenter of this earthquake in the city was far from Beyazıt area and the history records which showeel the clamages in other mosques, did not point out any big damages in the Bazaar.

The sixth disaster was the 1894 earthquake which causecl a big damage in the Bazaar; the turani vaultecl ceilings in Kalpakçılar Avenue anel Bat Pazarı, many small and big shops was destroyecl. With his great skills, Sultan Abclülhamid starteel the restorations with a commisian that he establishecl with brigaclier Mr.Fahri and the most striking point was that the restorations were finished in two years and the Bazaar was open for trade. During this process, the destı·oyecl buildings were implemented and other parts that needed repair were repaired as well. Beams were placecl to some vaults in the level of a stirrup, gleam shaped iron windows were place on the surfaces of arches, by putting a zing pipe to each feet, the rain was sent to sewage. During the restaration of the Bazaar, instead of old style bricks, new ones with holes in them were used however since they were all plasterecl, the bricks were not seen. The roof was built of mostly Marseille tiles anel the cressets were re-built.

The three cloors with really pointy arehes in the directian of Nuruosmaniye anel Çadırcılar were built at that time anel carry epigraphs of the restoration. The blue and yellaw light clecorations macle by thin brush strokes on the vaults anel aches along with the centers embellishecl the same way totally belong to this era. Before the earthquake, Çadırcılar Street was inside the Bazaar. Because of the fact that its vault was damaged severely, it was left out. Therefore, some internal gates !ike Bat Market became external ones. In addition to this, they stayed loyal to the original structure and there had not been any other distortions in the Bazaar except this minimazing. Perhaps this minimazing job was a result of lack of need, caused by the fact that the tradesmen, who were jobless because of the earthquake, moved their trading jobs to the directian of Eminönü. If we do not count the unnecessaıy brush decorations, no matter how light the gleamy iron windows, iron doors, and zinc pipes are, there are not many elements that look unpleasant to the eye. In addition to the small restorations that had continued in the Bazaar after this one, the most important restaration was based on a title of a regulation about the buildings under one roof, done on a small seetion of the roof in 1942 by İstanbul Municipality. In 1943, there had been another fire and four streets in Döşemeci and Y organcılar was destroyed. In my opinion, this last fire was worse than any other. Because, in previous fire incidents nowhere else but the surroundings of Bedestan and Bat Pazarı got destroyed. However, this time, Kalpakçılarbaşı Avenue, the area between Sandal Bedestan and Büyük Bedestan, Bat Pazarı, Zenneciler, old Sahaflar and a part of the current Halıcılar were burned down to ashes.

Ekrem Hakki Ayverdi

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