There had been a big earthquake during the time of Beyazıt II (1509). Although many builclings were clestroyecl, it clicl not affect the Bazaar. The fact that the first recorcled fire disaster was in 1519 in the records book of Hagia Sophia, shows us that there had been a fire disaster in the Bedestan before this clate. This fire bumeel only inner sections of Beclestan. Hunclrecl anel twenty eight trunks located where the safe boxes were, were aclclecl up to a hunclrecl anel forty; they had been repairecl and extenclecl by aclcling up the ones in the comers. The second fire took place in 1694 and bumeel out the four sicles of Beclestan. The third (1701) bumeel out Bat Market, Mercan Market and Kebeciler Inn which were located between Big Beclestan anel Sandal Bedestan. The fourth fire starteel araund Mercan area in 1749. Altlıough the fire was uncler control at first; it starteel again in a few hours anel after it bumeel out Bat Market, in adelition to Abacılar, Yorgancılar, Yağlıkçılar anel surraunding inns it clestroyed the Parmakkapı ve Okçularbaşı area which was outside the Bazaar. While Vakanüvis İzzi was ralking about this fire, he said that the fire was veıy destructive because of the wincl; it even damaged stones anel bricks. Fixing this kinci of damage was very clifficult for the traclesmen. When they wantecl to do a basic repair, the sultan of the time, Mahmut I, callecl the heacl architect of the palace for repairs and paicl the cost from his own pocket. By doing so, the sultan almost shows an example of the situation we are facing today.
The fifth disaster was the second biggest earthquake in 1765 which clestroyecl the Fatih Mosque. The Sultan of the time, Sultan Mustafa III, assignecl a person to each clestroyecl building; Tıfli Efendi was assigned to the Bazaar. However, although we do not have any information about the level of this damage, we presume that it was not severe. Yet, the epicenter of this earthquake in the city was far from Beyazıt area and the history records which showeel the clamages in other mosques, did not point out any big damages in the Bazaar. The sixth disaster was the 1894 earthquake which causecl a big damage in the Bazaar; the turani vaultecl ceilings in Kalpakçılar Avenue anel Bat Pazarı, many small and big shops was destroyecl. With his great skills, Sultan Abclülhamid starteel the restorations with a commisian that he establishecl with brigaclier Mr.Fahri and the most striking point was that the restorations were finished in two years and the Bazaar was open for trade. During this process, the destı·oyecl buildings were implemented and other parts that needed repair were repaired as well. Beams were placecl to some vaults in the level of a stirrup, gleam shaped iron windows were place on the surfaces of arches, by putting a zing pipe to each feet, the rain was sent to sewage. During the restaration of the Bazaar, instead of old style bricks, new ones with holes in them were used however since they were all plasterecl, the bricks were not seen. The roof was built of mostly Marseille tiles anel the cressets were re-built. The three cloors with really pointy arehes in the directian of Nuruosmaniye anel Çadırcılar were built at that time anel carry epigraphs of the restoration. The blue and yellaw light clecorations macle by thin brush strokes on the vaults anel aches along with the centers embellishecl the same way totally belong to this era. Before the earthquake, Çadırcılar Street was inside the Bazaar. Because of the fact that its vault was damaged severely, it was left out.
Therefore, some internal gates !ike Bat Market became external ones. In addition to this, they stayed loyal to the original structure and there had not been any other distortions in the Bazaar except this minimazing. Perhaps this minimazing job was a result of lack of need, caused by the fact that the tradesmen, who were jobless because of the earthquake, moved their trading jobs to the directian of Eminönü. If we do not count the unnecessaıy brush decorations, no matter how light the gleamy iron windows, iron doors, and zinc pipes are, there are not many elements that look unpleasant to the eye. In addition to the small restorations that had continued in the Bazaar after this one, the most important restaration was based on a title of a regulation about the buildings under one roof, done on a small seetion of the roof in 1942 by İstanbul Municipality. In 1943, there had been another fire and four streets in Döşemeci and Y organcılar was destroyed. In my opinion, this last fire was worse than any other. Because, in previous fire incidents nowhere else but the surroundings of Bedestan and Bat Pazarı got destroyed. However, this time, Kalpakçılarbaşı Avenue, the area between Sandal Bedestan and Büyük Bedestan, Bat Pazarı, Zenneciler, old Sahaflar and a part of the current Halıcılar were burned down to ashes.
The Fires In The Grand Bazaar : There had been many disasters in the Grand Bazaar during its history and it changed its face many times because of the contionuous earthquakes and fires. In ı509, during the times of Bayezit II, an earthquake which massed İstanbul up, also affected the Bazaar. In ı694 the fire that started in Inner Bedestan was extinguised before it got bigger. A big fire in ı 70ı followed this one. During this fire incident, all of the shops located between Old and New Bedestan were destroyed. In ı 749, another fire caused big damage in the Bazaar, the sultan of the time, Mahmud I, took care of the restorations in person. The earthquakes in ı 765 and especially the one in ı894 destroyed the Bazaar along with İstanbul. After ı894 eaıthquake, big restorations were made in the Bazaar; some parts were minimazed; the Çadırcılar and Kürkçüler gates of the time were removed; Dua, Bitpazarı, Yorgan and Koltukçular internal gates were turned into external ones. On September 9th ı943, there had been another fire incident in the Bazaar; Döşemeciler section, Sarıhasan, Yeşildirek, Mütevelli, Ağahan, Cüppeli Streets and Alipaşa Inn were all destroyed. However, there is no doubt that the fire which started on November 27th ı954 was much bigger than the others; one thousand six hundred sixty six shops were destroyed. Especially Kalpakçılar Avenue was burned down to ashes until Kürkçüler; other destroyed areas were Terziler, Kolancılar, Kavukçular, Koltukçular, Hazırelbiseciler, Hacı Hüsnü Emirşah and Püsküllü Streets. After this fire, there had been a substantial repair in the Bazaar. Here is a document about the ı954 fire from the archives of Taha Toros. The repoıt from the Old Stnıctures Protection Commisian to Ministry of
National Education with the signature of the chairman: An addition to our report, number 624.265, dated November 30th 1954: The damage in the Bazaar caused by the fire that starteel on November 26th, 1954 at 10: 10pm had been examined. First of all, it is certain that the damages on chattels will be examined and a decision will be made by the experts. As a result of our investigation done for the reason of the structure being an old one: Kalpakçılar Avenue being the center, the fire spreaded towards northeast in the Bazaar. The half of the Kalpakçılar’s beginning was bumeel down; after side streets to the destroyecl seetion of Kalpakçılar such as Fesçiler, Yorgancılar, Elbiseciler, Yağlıkçılar anel others were also bumeel clown, the fire stoppecl in front of the mosque in Örücüler market anel half of the mentioneel street was saved. The halfs of other streets !ike Kavaflar, Parçacılar were clestroyecl while the rest of them were not. An1ong other things, in the street that goes on from the Prayer Field to the Eectestan gate, the fire bumeel Halıcılar (Rug Sellers) anel Mobilyacılar (Fumiture Dealers) seetion away. In this respect the two fifth of the Bazaar is bumeel away while the sections toward Mahmutpaşa and Beclestans are safe. The fire damage on the building consists of partial bums on the plasters, stones on the feet of the archways and some poles. However, the collapse of an archway that was hold by a pole in the Prayer Field anel a vault supported by that archway causecl another collapse of an area of a hundrecl square meters in the clome. This inciclent took place where the street in Boclrum Inn intersectecl with another one that eneleel in Bat Pazarı and there had not been any other clamages in the archways except the collapse of an approximately two hundred square meter clome; other damages were not severe comparing to this one. The fact that the Bazaar was affectecl by the fire is not that important. Although there were much more clestruction in the Bazaar after the earthquake in 1310, the Bazaar was reconstructecl in two years. In this respect, it is clear that toclay’s damage can be repairecl quickly with a serimıs attention and it will not cost a huge amount. As it is known, people with property deeds (who own properties) are responsible from their personal properties. Although the costs of these damages must be taken from the owners since the risks of these properties are taken by them as a certain rı..ıle, it is essential that it must be done with the audit of the authorities so that the restorations can be uniform. The most appropriate way to do this is to use the same technique which was used during the reconstruction in 1310 earthquake. That was to construct and repair fragmentarily anel to collect the cost from owners in payments. Since all eyes are on the Bazaar because of the fact that it is an original structure with no alike anel a precious memento, which is known by every govemment anel viewed by itinerants with astonishment, it is a necessity not to ruin its architectural qualities anel structural style during these reconstructions. It must be arrangecl just the way it was before and must be reconstructecl orclerly. The workers who will be a part of this restaration must take orders from the Council and High Committee who are the experts on this job. Therefore, the Bazaar must be repaired anel no parts must be ruinecl. Both in the meclia and rumors it is written anel said that some commissions are formeel anel a law is going to pass on this subject. But, our Council is not being made a part of this yet and nothing is being asked to out association. It is obvious that our Council, in the capacity as an expert on the work that is going to be done, must be a part of these commissions anel clebates. On be half of our Council, I am asking you to notify the necessary people in an effective way and give them the necessary orders. Respectfully yours The chairman of Old Structures Protection Commision.
The grand bazaar Is Burning : ”The Grand Bazaar is a sealed boxed”, this phrase by Orhan Veli is a poetic expressian and yet is a true statement in terms of the Bazaar’s history. The number of works on the Grand Bazaar, which is the center of İstanbul’s trading life, a place where the culture and business combine, where high works of arts are being produced, bought and solcl, is just a few. It is not possible to find any works in Turkish other than the ones of Çelik Gülersoy, Efdalettin Tekiner, Orhan Erdenen and a few others that explains mostly Bazaar’s business life. However, it is possible to write volumes of books about the different branches of professions(crafts) which the Bazaar inholds and are partially extinct. Researches must be done about the social life, commercial activity, cultural change of the Bazaar. Here is an example of one of the faces of this sealed box, the Grand Bazaar: the history of the Grand Bazaar fires. The Grand Bazaar is a place that suffered from many small and big fire incidents that happened in İstanbul. But, there is rarely a source of any information on this subject and this information is disorganized. While I was collecting this information, I wanted share with you the documents on a big fire incident that happened in the Grand Bazaar not very long ago. I am presenting you two first hand docu- ments about the big fire on November 1954 with no changes. One of them is the report of Fire Marshall’ s Deputy who is one of the firsts who stepped into the fire, the other one is Fahrettin Kerim Gökay’s, the mayor of İstanbul, speech that he made during the opening of barracks that were built temporarily after the fire in the courtyard of Nuruosmaniye mosque. The fire that happened on November 26th of 1954 in the Grand Bazaar On the date of 11/26/1954, at 22:53 Kumkapı Commissar Deputy called by the phone numbered 26434, informed that the fire started at the basement of the Church across from Gedikpaşa Turkish Bath and asked for a fire truck. Immediately a truck was sent under Team Chief Deputy from İstanbul Team, Yakup Karaoğlu, and just when a turn was about to bemade to Gedikpaşa from the front of Çarşıkapı police station, after being told by the police and people that the fire is actually was in the Bazaar, it changed its direction to the Bazaar. When it arrived to the gate of the Bazaar, the nightguards opened the gate and the Bazaar was buming on fire. The central office was notified immidearely of this situation and addirional help was asked. At that time Beyazıt ve Galata towers had also seen the fire and informed the team. At 22.56 seven more trucks and four arnbulant motor-pumps was sent and when they arrived to the scene at 23.00, it was seen that the shops towards Kalpakçılar Avenue and Örücüler were burning. The strong fires that was coming towards the gates made it impossible to get into the Bazaar. At 23:01, despite the fact that the water in the water tanks was used on the fire, the fire substantially spreaded through the Bazaar and Hüseyinağa Mahallesi Mosque Street.
The fire even reached to the outside of the Bazaar. Upon these facts, at 23:07 the central office was called with radiotelephone and addirional help was wanted. The second team from İstanbul Team arrived at 23:14; the first team from Beyoğlu team arrived at 23:16; Bakırköy team arrived at 23:24; the second group from Beyoğlu team arrived at 23:37 and the fire trucks of Üsküdar and Kadıköy Teams arrived at the fire scene at 1:12 am. With the participation of the teams which arrived after the first arrival to the scene and the first watering at 23:01, the water was taken from Beyazıt pool, the water tank in Nuruosmaniye Mosque, Süleymaniye pool, water tank in Ticaret Inn, water tank in Kızılay Inn, the fire hydrants, which are located in the front of Çarşıkapı police station and Çadırcılar, in Hakkaklar Market, Makasçılar Avenue and in front of the gas station at Yeniçeriler Avenue. The water was also taken from other fire hydrants !ike the 100mm one in Fuatpaşa Avenue, 60mm one by Çakmakçılar Hill ve Tavukpazarı, llOmm ones in Vezirhan Avenue and Kürkçüler Avenue, 60mm one in Hüseyinağa Mosque street and the ones in Grand Bazaar Kuyumcular Street and the water was tried to be given with a l10se from Yorgancılar, which was opened by the people in order to save their belongings, Bitpazarı and Örücüler gates, which were opened by the firemen. By continuing to work at this pace, the spread of the fire was prevented at 1:00am in November 27th 1954 and the fire was taken under control. At 6:00am the fire was under control, and at 12:00 the fire was completely put out. It is determined that the cause of fire was a short circuit in an electric circuit which put the cotton and the comforters on fire in Davud’s comforter store numbered 68 by Koltuk Kazazlar Street. The factors that caused the spread of this fire can be listed as the following: 17 JC Grand Bazaar isa place tbat sz~fferedfrom nwny s ma!! and big fire inciden ts t!ıot happe11ed in İ’ltanbu!. But. there is rard)’ a sotun: of ony iı~j’ormatı:on on this subject.
The fact that in the nearby stores to the one in which the fire started, the flammable and combustable goods that were hung close to the electric wires served almost as matches and the fact that the display windows were made out of plywood, card board and oilpaint. As a result of counterflow of the wind in the air current and through the street alleys by flowing through broken windows and especially previously opened doors, the fire licked the streets like a toung paraHel to the floor and inflamed the stores and display goods in an orderly manner. The fact that there were gunpowder shops and cologne shops which carried flammable goods. The fact that there were easily flammable goods !ike grass, hay, cotton, varnish and ete. in bulks in the furniture stores. The fact that there were copiously stores that sold and displayed pudding, milk, meat balls and other food products. The fact that there were animals !ike cats, mice and other reptiles that came into the Bazaar and nested there in time. These animals most likely caught on fire and played a big role on spreading the fire by nınning through the holes or any openings they saw. Conclusion: Even though one thousand two hundred shops were estimated after the fire was put out, One thousand three hundred and sixty four shops were determined at the end of the examination of the tax department. Seventy four of these shops burned down completely while one thousand two hundred and ninety got burned partially. There were also thirty shops outside the Bazaar that burned down. This fire caused an estimated 15000,00 liras worth of damage and 7,034,168 of this cost was paid by the insurance company. These numbers are enough to deseribe the severity of this disaster. For their high performance during this disaster a wrist watch was given to Fire Marshall Tevfik Himalaya, Fire Marshall Deputy Tarık Özavcı, Chief of İstanbul District Team İsmail Koca, Chief of Beyoğlu District Team Cemal Oral, Ali Demirel, employee # 493, from the İstanbul Team, Cafer Aydın empoyee# 44 and Zeynel Öztürk empolyee#l97 by the government.
Other than this, with the decision 1676/3270 that was made on February 23rd 1955 by the permanent committee, gifts were given to Fire Marshall Tevfik Himalaya and Fire Marshall Deputy Tarık Özavcı and to others who served during this fire according to their ranks. To the Provincial Office by İstanbul Jewelers Guild on February 28th 1955: 1- One silver cigar box to Fire Marshall Tevfik Himalaya, 2- One silver cigar box to Fire Marshall Deputy Tarık Özavcı’ya on behalf of Cevahir Bedestan jewelers, 3- One silver mug to İstanbul Centeral Fire Team, 4- One silver mug to Beyoğlu District Fire Team, 5- One silver mug to Üsküdar District Fire Team, 6- One silver mug to Kadıköy District Fire Team, 7- One silver mug was given to Bakırköy District Fire Team. The value of these gifts are sentimental, not materialistic. Our humble fire department feels joy when it puts out a fire with minimum damage and considers this success as the most precious gift.” The government and local authorities nın immediately for the help of those who suffered from the fire. After one month, just before the new year, seventy temporaıy baracks were openecl for service by the Mayor of İstanbul Fahrettin Kerim Gökay in the courtyard of Nuruosmaniye Mosque. Gökay told the fallawing in his opening speech: “My fellow citizens, With their unique high patience anel energy, Turkish people tıy to eliminare this big sorrow that we are going through by their immeeliate supports. From the first moment, our respected President, Vice-President, representatives and all of the employees on duty of the county anel the city have been with you. In the histoıy of Turkish nation, sorrows always came along with national solidarity. Your big sorrow affectecl not only our countıy but the whole world. However, before the end of the first month, our compassionate government gives one-seventh of the victims their jobs back. I said one-seventh because when we count these five hunclred shops that got destroyed, we see that some stores have two separate shops in them. That means that close to seven hundred anel fifty citizens lost their jobs and shops. However, the employees who worked for these job owners are anather total of number. Taelay these temporary barracks, but tomorrow your bumeel Bazaar, will soon be handed to you properly with full protection of your material and moral rights. The work has staıted. In addition, very soon we will be handing to you the temporary barracks, which will be built in the courtyard of Şehzade and Mercan. The loss in these painful days in the history of Turkish nation has ended. Turkish people, holding their heads high, are moving towards a new bright path. While standing in the last days of this old year and on the doorsteps of the new one, I wish that this temporary Bazaar, which we built in the courtyard of bright sanctuary of N uruosmaniye for the first time, will make all of you happy. I also ask Almighty God not to bring any other sorrows to our people. I wish bright new days for us and greet all of you with love.
Will Earthquake Demolish Us : Even though the fire in 1954 caused severe damage in the Grand Bazaar, it did not destroy the main elements of the Bazaar’s architecture. The main factor that turned the Bazaar’s older lines upside down and turned it to the way it is today is 1894 earthquake which was called the “little doomsday”. While a hundred and thirty five tradesmen and employees were killed in the earthquake that happeded during the day on July 10th, it also caused big collapses in the structure and drastic changes were made in the architecture of the Bazaar during the restorations. In addition to many other documents, we are able to eletermine this from the two documents in the book called “İstanbul Earthquakes” by Mehmet Genç ve Mehmet Mazak, which was published by İGDAŞ, an organization of İstanbul City Hall, and we are able to have a concrete idea of the severity of this earthquake by looking at the images in the same book. According to these documents, the government required re-building the Grand Bazaar by using the latest technology and plainly this decision was applied. According to the book, The Grand Bazaar is on a loose ground. That is the reason of the collapses and deaths in the Grand Bazaar during the 1894 earthquake. But, there is unbelievable information in the sentence that connects 45th page to the 46th of this book: “The seetion where the Grand Bazaar is was filled with soil that was taken out while they were digging the foundation for the construction of Beyazıt and Nuıuosmaniye Mosques.” The two following sentences explain what this one means: “The Bazaar sits on a loose ground. This loose ground played a big role on the severe damage caused by the earthquake.” The constı·uction of Beyazıt Mosque was finished in 1506. As far as is known, after the conquest, Mehmet the Conqueror started the construction of the Bazaar (1461); he first built Cevahir, then Sandal Bedestans and in time the Bazaar expanded around these two. Hence, it is possible that the ground of the Grand Bazaar, which sits on the valley between the second and the third of the seven hills in İstanbul, was filled (even if it is partially) with the soil that was taken out from the foundation during the constıuction of Beyazıt Mosque. However, the possibility of the stuff that was taken out from the foundation of Nuıuosmaniye mosque, which was finished in 1755, being used for the ground of the Grand Bazaar is remote since the Bazaar was mostly constıucted at the time. In the end, the assertian in the discussed book is in question, and it has to be supported by solid proof. But this assertian has to be taken seriously; because it is stated in a book published by İGDAŞ which is a serious organization of metropolitan municipality and bears responsibility. If this assertian is trı.ıe- the primary responsibility of figuring out whether it is or not is İGDAŞ’s- immediate precautions has to be taken. Now, let’s read together the paıt about the Grand Bazaar from the book: The Grand Bazaar in 1894 Earthquake: The earthquake on July 10th, 1894 caused severe damage in the Grand Bazaar.
We would not exaggerate if we were to say that the Bazaar got the most damage as a result of this earthquake since it was first constructed. While the city was swayed heavily by the twelve earthquakes that occurred in about five hundrecl years from the time the Grand Bazaar was first constructecl, there is no clear anel cletailecl information stating that the Bazaar was damaged from these earthquakes. It may be thought that the Bazaar had some damage from the 1509 earthquake. Earthquakes causecl the biggest damage and impact in the history of this big Bazaar. This huge Bazaar was shattered by the disaster it went through and was not be able to recover. One hundred thirth five eleaci bodies anel one hundred forty seven wounded were found during the earthquake in Grand Bazaar which was stated as severely damaged in all of the sources. The seetion where Grand Bazaar is was filled with the soil that was taken out while they were digging the foundation for the construction of Beyazıt and Nuruosmaniye Mosques. It sits on a filled loose ground. This loose ground playeel a big role on the severe damage caused by the earthquake. Therefore Grand Bazaar became this disaster place, the people and the tradesmen in the Bazaar starteel to nın in fear and panic and the Bazaar collapsed from place to place. Even a year after the earthquake, the blocks of stone were lieing on the floors. Sultan Abdülhamit II ordered to do whatever is neecled for Grand Bazaar. The borders of the Bazaar were narroweel during the restorations that were made in sections under the authority of the minister of Public Works, Mahmut Celalettin Pasha. The top cover of Çaclırcılar Avenue was removed and it was left outside the Bazaar. Dua Market, Flea Market, Yorgancılar and Koltukçular gates, be internal gates, were turned into gates that openecl to outside. Lütfuilah Street was clestroyed and a wall was built over its gate. Sarnıçlı Inn, Paçavracı Inn, Ali Paşa Inn were completely and Yolgeçen Inn was partially left outside the Bazaar. Gates were built to each of the ends of the avenue (Kalpakçılar) that connected Beyazıt anel Nuru Osmaniye. While the two years of restorations saveel the builcling, it changed the oı·der of shops and the original identity of the Bazaar.
We are presenting the two documents, with their Turkish translations, that state that the Grand Bazaar was damaged severely and must be restoı·ecl immecliately: The Supreme Being may protect the Ottoman lands from any kincls of clisasters. Amin. As a result of the earthquake that happened the other day, sad scenes were seen in the Grancl Bazaar. The Bazaar is nameel the trade center of the capital of the Ottoman Empire and known by everyone. Even olcler and foreign tourists look forward to visit this place. The Bazaar is a place in which precious handicrafts are being sold; its reputation must be restored. Unfortunately, it seems !ike it is not possible to provide the necessities of the clestroyed places so that they can be repaired. However, if no action is taken, severe damage, moral and material disadvantages is expected. Hereupon, I had the courage of writing this Jetter as a loyal and sineere servant of the sultan, so that it may be a memory in the future: According to the rumors the majority of the Bazaaı·’s domes are damaged and some are completely destroyecL If there are dangerO.ıs places in the Bazaar, these places must be demolished; the area must be deaneel and the tradesmen and merchants must be placed to these convenient locations so that the Bazaar can be ready for trade again. A committee of the officers’ and traclesmen’s leaclers and two of the science expert architects must be formed in order to eletermine the cost of rebuilcling the clestroyecl places and the damaged domes that must be taken down so that they won’t be a danger for the community. Since the people of the Bazaar are not able to pay for the reconstruction and restaration costs right away, we hope the compassian anel consicleration of our Sultan will again reach for the help of his servants and people by letting them borrow a hunclred and fifty thousand piasters (liras), which is enough for the reconstruction, restorations anel deaning of the place, under the government’s seal and guarantee.
The money can be borrowed with a moclerate interest rate and in exchange of the forty percent of the annual rent, in adelition to a certain amount that they will give from their earnings of their shops. If the Sultan approves, the construction will start this instant by using the current technology in artchitecture. These strong and useful developments will turn the Bazaar into a more pleasant anel neater place than it was before. That way, the business of the Ottoman Empire anel its citizens will revive. With no doubt everyone will show their gratitudes, aclmire anel pray for the Sultan. In any case, the decision, edict, kinclness anel bounty belong to our puissant anel powerful Sultan. The letter, Nritten by Selim Efendi who is the minister of agriculture and mining, which suggests starting the restaration of the Bazaar by using the latest technology of the time and making it better than it usecl to be, was sent to the prime minister; the sultan has approvecl the letter. Thereupon, it will be discussed in the House of Represantatives toclay. If it is found expedient, the location of the starting place for the restorations anel other cletails will be elecicieel anel written. The decision is going to be sent to the Sultan anel the fina! clecision anel eelict is my n1aster’s.