İstanbul Tradesmen In The Grand Bazaar, According to the description in Kamus-i Turki, the first Turkish dictionary written by Şemsettin Sami: “At one time the tradesmen coordinated into groups !ike artists, shop keepers, quilt makers or coppersmiths ete. Trading is the work of tradesmen and the on es who sells merchandise in the shops. Tradesmen Chamberlain is the person who perforrus the works of the tradesmen on the behalf of the government, works on the bail and other issues for the tradesmen and collects taxes from them.
The Trade Guild is an established council and a place of gathering and negotiation for each tradesman. In our social life trying to make a living by doing other than a government job such as trading, open- ing a shop, a factory or working as a craftsman was subjected to same provisions. This provision was called “Gedik”. Every class of tradesmen and artisans established .same organizations called “The Bravery Community” or “The Craftsmanship Community” until the end of 18th century. At the beginning of 19th Century, these were replaced by the “The Trade Guild”. The Gedik Law, which restricted trading and craftsmanship, can basically be explained as “to freeze of the number of shops, factories and independent workplaces.” For example, in the middle of the 19th century, there were two hundred shops that sold sandals. Under that circumstance, not even one more sandal shop was allawed to open or close. The stores could not even change their locations. For instance, a shop in Çemberlitaş was not allawed to move to Çarşıkapı without the official permission.
The founders of “The Bravery Community”, “The Craftsmanship Community” and later on the Trade Guild for the tradesmen were grant bolder masters. In order to establish a guild, the number the tradesmen and craftsmen group had to be a certain amount. If a group of tradesmen could not establish an independent guild by themselves, they became the “Apprentice Tradesmen” for the most crowded trade group which does the most similar job that they do. For example, kalpakçılar, gede- likçiler (they sew large leather quivers ” onto saddles), tekelciler (the ones who sew the cotton cloths to be used underneath the saddles), yularcılar (bridle makers), kamçıcılar (whip makers), palancılar (saddle makers) were the apprentices of harness maker craftsmen while paşmakçılar (shoe makers), kavaflar (affordable shoe makers), çizmeeller (boot makers), terlikçiler (slipper makers), eskici- ler (second hand dealers) belonged to pabuçcu (shoemaker)’s guild. For some big businesses, trade guilds were established by bosses.
The ones who worked for those bosses were the tradesmen; and the poor independent workers who do the same job became their apprentices. For example, guards and rubbers were the apprentices for Turkish bath attenclants; caulkers, ship carpenters, rope makers, sail makers, pitch makers, tar makers, flagpoJe makers, ship pump makers, compass makers, clock makers for ships, map makers and divers were the apprenıtıces for Black Sea Captains; gondola-boat carpenters, boatmen and bargemen were Mediterranean Captains’ apprentices. The grants of each apprentice traclesmen group were clifferent. When the grant halder died, the workshop and the store would be left to the child of the halder with the canelition that he/she has to work and manage them. If there were no children or the child did not want to follow his fathers footsteps than the grant was considered escheated; the guild would devolve the workshop and the store upon a fareman who deserved the job. The cost of the merchandise and a determined amoı.ınt of money was paid to the inheritor or the child who did not do the same job as his father.
After the apprentice of any tradesmen or artisans finished his apprentice time which was determined by traclition (this period of time was up to three years depeneling on the difficulty of the job) and if his master agreed that he got the skills, according to the ways of Fütüvvetname (rules and regulations of turkish-islamic guild), an apron was put on him and he would become the fareman in the same workshop. In order for a fareman to become a master, he had to fincl an escheatecl grant. Most of the foremen would search for it themselves. When a master who wanted to leave the job was cleterminecl the foreman would pay a fee called “Peştemallık-Peştemaliye” anel buy the grant. If he did not have enough money, then he woulcl borrow some money without any interest from the Guilcl’s proviclent fund. It must be reminclecl that the fareman who lookecl for a grant must have been qualifiecl anel his skills needed to be approved by the guild he was subjecteel to. When the fareman became a master, an apron was put araund his belly. This ceremony was much more brilliant than the apprentice ceremony anel it was called “The Raise of the Apprentice”. During the period of the Bravery and Craftsmanship Community until the enel of 17th centuıy the guilcls were aclministerecl by the followings in İstanbul, hence in Turkey.